Thursday, April 14, 2011


The Link between Urbanization and Climatic Factors: A Concept on Formation of Urban Heat Island
Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, UKM
Increasing the number of population, pollutions, urban expansion and many other kinds of urbanization factors in metropolitan areas are affected climatic factors and vice versa. In fact, there is a correlation between these two factors in general. This paper put forward the conceptual model and two hypotheses. In order to test the model, UHI mapping has been carried out in Tehran as a case study. The investigation has been done at macro-level to get surface temperature. The methodology employed is to use satellite image with a thermal band (obtained on 18 July 2000). To map out the UHI, mapping of LST and NDVI were necessary and then overlaid them and extracted maximum temperature value for both urban and rural areas. The results show that the maximum urban and rural temperature values are 39°C and 27°C respectively.  Therefore, daytime Tehran surface UHI shows 12ÂșC of difference between urban and rural areas which is quite strong. Analyzing the data specified that the urbanization factors have direct impact on increasing the UHI intensity in Tehran metropolitan area. 

Key-Words: - Climatic Factors, Environmental Challenge, Tehran, Urban, Urban Heat Island, Urbanization Factors

Saturday, February 5, 2011

The 2nd International Building Control Conference

Healthy Environment: The Need to Mitigate Urban Heat Island Effects on Human Health

P. Shahmohamadi11, A.I. Che-Ani11, I. Etessam2, K.N.A. Maulud3, N.M. Tawil1
1Department of Architecture, Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia
2Department of Architecture and Urban Design, Faculty of Fine Art, Tehran University, Iran
3Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia


Climate changes such as changes in temperature and precipitation, sea level, fisheries, agriculture, natural ecosystems, and air quality will all directly or indirectly affect human morbidity (illness) or mortality. One of the great challenges facing our current generation of scientists and engineers is how to protect urban population from health stress associated with summertime heat. As heat-waves are likely to increase in frequency because of global climate change, the most effective interventions, measures and policies to protect the health need to be developed and evaluated. Therefore, this paper is focused on understanding the most important factors of UHI formation and their effects on urban population health with an emphasis on the considerable growth of both population and rapid urbanization of Tehran, Iran. To achieve this aim, this paper explores literally a conceptual framework about the relationship between UHI and human health. Then, it suggests three important strategies to minimize the impact of UHI on human health: achieving appropriate transportation for mitigating air pollution, providing appropriate landscape, and increasing the albedo of building materials.

Keywords: building material, healthy environment, human health, urban heat island, urban landscape

Tuesday, February 1, 2011

Achieving Energy Consumption Balance in Kuala Lumpur Shophouses by Mitigating Urban Heat Island Effects: Focusing on Anthropogenic Heat Factor

P. Shahmohamadi, A.I. Che-Ani, K.N.A. Maulud, N.M. Tawil, N.A.G. Abdullah
Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia


Production of anthropogenic heat and using energy for cooling systems, lighting and etc. led to have serious impacts on the thermal environmental quality such as quality of the air, increase in temperature, energy consumption and finally the formation of UHI. Shophouses represent important land uses in Kuala Lumpur since many years ago, which influence the resulting thermal environment including the formation of urban heat island (UHI). This paper investigates the impact of anthropogenic heat on formation of urban heat island and increasing energy consumption. It explores literally the conceptual framework of confliction between anthropogenic heat and urban structure, which produce UHI intensity and affected energy consumption balance. It is then discussed how these two factors can be affected and gives implication to the city and then, focuses on whether actions should be taken for balancing adaptation and mitigation UHI effects. It will be concluded by making the important strategies to minimize the impact of UHI on energy consumption.

Key Words: Energy Consumption Balance, Kuala Lumpur, Shophouses, Urban Heat Island.